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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/1641

Title: Observational learning from animated models: Effects of modality and reflection on transfer.
Authors: Wouters, Pieter
Paas, Fred
Van Merriënboer, Jeroen
Keywords: modality
reflection
cognitive load theory
cognitive modeling
Issue Date: 2008
Abstract: Animated models use animations and explanations to teach how a problem is solved and why particular problem-solving methods are chosen. Often spoken explanations are proposed to accompany animations in order to prevent overloading the visual channel (i.e., the modality effect). In this study we adopt the hypothesis that the inferior performance of written text compared to spoken text is due to the fact that written text receives less attention and, consequently, less effortful processing. In a 2 x 2 factorial experiment (N = 96) with the factors modality (written, spoken) and reflection prompts (yes, no) the hypothesis is tested that prompted reflection requires learners to explicitly attend to written explanations and carefully process them, thus yielding higher transfer performance, whereas for spoken explanations prompted reflection would have no effect on transfer performance. The results indeed showed the hypothesized interaction between modality and reflection prompts. They suggest that the modality effect can be compensated for when learners explicitly attend to the information and effortfully process it. This has implications for learning situations in which spoken explanations are no option, such as education for the hearing-impaired.
Description: Wouters, P.J.M., Paas, F. & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2008). Observational learning from animated models: Effects of modality and reflection on transfer. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34, 1-8.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/1641
Appears in Collections:1. LC: Publications and Preprints

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