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Title: On-site Waste Disposal in Garla Mare, Romania. Onderzoek uitgevoerd in opdracht van Women of Europe for a Common Future, München, Germany.
Authors: Wolters-de Baat, Anneloes
Keywords: waste management, Romania, legislation, composting
[afvalmanagement, Roemenie, wetgeving, composteren]
Issue Date: Jul-2006
Publisher: Open Universiteit
Citation: Wolters-de Baat, Anneloes (2006). On-site Waste Disposal in Garla Mare, Romania. Onderzoek uitgevoerd in opdracht van Women of Europe for a Common Future, München, Germany (Unpublished BSc Bachelor's Thesis Environmental Sciences), Open Universiteit, Heerlen, NL.
Abstract: ABSTRACT. Romania is a former communist country in Eastern Europe. In 1990 the totalitarian regime was overthrown and restructuring of a free-market economy took place. This caused the rural economy to collapse, farmers are mostly self-dependent. In the same period a new environmental legislation was established, environmental protection became a national priority. Romania will probably join the European Union in 2007, therefore much European legislation has been and will be adopted. Garla Mare is a village in the rural south of Romania. The villagers are concerned that their waste management has a negative impact on their society. Other stakeholders in the local waste management are the local environmental Non Governmental Organisation (NGO) Eco-San, the German NGO Women of Europe for a Common Future and the local government. The stakeholders want to improve their waste management for different reasons, the villagers want to improve the surroundings to be able to develop ecotourism, the NGO’s are concerned for local health and the natural environment. The local government wants to live up to the newly developed legislation. They have in common that they all want to know how the present practise on waste management can be improved so that it will be according to the newly developed Romanian national legislation. The newly developed Romanian legislation had adopted many European waste management directives, but there is no strategic waste management hierarchy. In the future the separation of household waste, reuse and recycling and prevention of waste will get more attention. Changes in legislation in this direction can be expected in the future. At regional level plans are made for reuse of organic waste, at local level no policies or plans could be obtained. The existing legislation has not been implemented yet. The existing legislation is expected to be implemented in 2015-2020. Half of the Romanian citizens have no municipal waste collection, this practise is not illegal according to the present legislation. This will change however with the implementation the existing environmental legislation. There are hardly any facilities for sorting and reuse of waste, this must change around 2015 – 2020 when landfilling of organic waste must be prevented. In Garla Mare there is no central collection of waste or a governmental waste management strategy. The waste consists mostly of organic waste from fields, garden and animals and plastic waste. This waste is disposed of at the village border. Therefore the whole village is surrounded by landfills. It was not possible to obtain figures on the amounts of waste produced, but comparison with Bulgarian rural villages show that there is probably a production of 260 kilo organic waste and 8 kilo plastic per capita per year. The amount of plastic waste is too small for a local recycling programme. The options for waste management of organic waste are biogas production, composting and waste spreading. Since there is no money to invest in a biogas installation and waste spreading might become illegal with future legislation, composting is the best option for treating organic waste. This is also the outcome of regional plans for organic waste treatment in Romania and rural Bulgaria. The amounts of organic waste justify a small scale organic waste reuse programme. There is a choice to be made between central composting and small scale composting at household level in yards. Collection and transport can best be done with a tractor, but this costs money for a tractor and gas. Given the income situation in Garla Mare, there is not much money for central collection and a composting site. Composting at household level seems the most realistic option for treatment of organic waste. The Bulgarian government promotes composting at household level given the good results in regions where this practise is tradition, the success of these projects support the choice for composting at household level.
Appears in Collections:BSc Environmental Sciences

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