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|Title:||Zichtlezen bij Cellisten :Welke Factoren en Strategieën Leiden tot Betere Resultaten?|
|Abstract:||Sight-reading is an indispensable skill for musicians. Previous research on sight-reading has mainly taken place from a tonal perspective where intervals and harmonic functions form basic premises. Wind instruments, keyboard-based instruments and the human voice differ on important aspects in comparison with string instruments. The question is therefore if a tonal approach is the most appropriate method to measure proficiency of sight-reading with string instruments. The goal of this research is to measure sight-reading proficiency of cellists. The research examines the effect of cognitive position knowledge, expertise, routine, complexity, position use and position strategies (tonal and positional) on sight-reading errors. These errors manifested themselves in pitch and short and long pauses during sight-reading. The purpose is to answer the following question: Does position knowledge, expertise, routine, position use and use of tonal and positional sight-reading strategies lead to better sight-reading by cellists? In this expertise study 79 non-randomly instructor-selected cello students participated. They very in age (7 to 70), expertise level (low, moderate, high) and experience: measured in years of having followed cello lessons (between 1 and 20). This study is in terms of design and execution partly correlational (use of positional and tonal strategies) and partly an experimental repeated-measures design (expertise, routine, position knowledge, complexity and position use). The following measuring instruments are developed for this research: (a) the Questionnaire on Background Variables of Sight-Reading with open and closed questions, (b) the Survey on Sight-Reading Strategies, consisting of 24 questions on a 5-point Likert scale, (c) the Position Knowledge Test consisting of 40 multiple choice questions, and (d) the Vocal Sight-Reading Inventory (VSRI) version 1 (Henry, 1999, melody 1, 3, 4, and 5 transposed and renamed to Transposed Sight-Reading Melodies VSRI) consisting of three repetitions of four short melodies that increase in the amount of accidentals and whereby the total sight-reading errors, short pauses, long pauses and position use are recorded. The findings suggest that use of positional strategies during sight-reading shows no significant stronger correlation with the amount of sight-reading errors than the use of tonal strategies. Better position knowledge indicates a very strong negative correlation with the amount of sight-reading errors, while a weak correlation exists with pauses. In addition, it appears that an increase in the amount of accidentals leads to more sight-reading errors and more pauses. Finally, the position knowledge, expertise level and position use of participants explain 83% of the variation in the total sight-reading errors. Experience and use of tonal strategies explain 40% of the variation in the amount of short pauses and 25% of the variation in the amount of long pauses. In conclusion, research on sight-reading from a cognitive perspective is adequate provided that tonal strategy is kept in consideration. Cognitive position knowledge yields better sight-reading ability; application of position knowledge through position use and acquisition of advanced expertise also promote sight-reading skills. Strikingly, the use of tonal strategies in combination with experience leads to fewer pauses. The concluding advice is that musical education for string instrument players should place more emphasis on practice and acquisition of a cognitive-topographic position network, embedded in a musical theory background wherein as much positional as well as tonal strategies are provided.|
|Description:||Wolfs, Z. (2016). Zichtlezen bij Cellisten:Welke Factoren en Strategieën Leiden tot Betere Resultaten? februari, 22, 2016, Heerlen, Nederland: Open Universiteit|
|Appears in Collections:||MSc Learning Sciences|
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